CBD, short for Cannabidiol, occurs naturally in cannabis flowers — both in marijuana as well as hemp (we only sell hemp-based CBD in our shop: www.enliveencbdstore.com). It can also be found in other plants as well. It is called a phytocannabinoid because it is a “cannabinoid” that occurs in plants. This will be explained in better detail below. CBD is just one of 113 cannabinoids that have been identified to this point (2019). Of the 113 identified ones, there are 9 primary ones which will also be described later.
Will CBD make me “high?”
CBD contains NO psychotropic properties, unlike another phytocannabinoid you might be familiar with called THC (also explained below). Many people say it contains no “psychoactive” properties, but this is a bit misleading as it does act on the “psyche” as an anti-anxiety and an anti-psychotic.
By saying it is non-psychotropic we are clarifying that it does not produce a “high” like THC does. No matter how much CBD you were to consume, you would not get the feeling of a high whatsoever. You may feel relaxed, or calm, but not high. This is a very important point to understand, because many people are still concerned about ingesting CBD because they don’t want to “get stoned.”
As mentioned, CBD is not an intoxicant. However, if a clinically depressed person ingests a CBD product and has a great day for the first time in a long time, it’s obvious that CBD is a powerful mood-altering compound. CBD won’t make a person feel stoned, but it can impact a person’s psyche in positive ways.
Why would I use CBD?
CBD has been proven to have anti-anxiety, analgesic, anti-psychotic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-seizure properties. Because it hasn’t been fully studied or endorsed by the FDA, we cannot say it cures these, or any other, medical problems. We can, however, state that it has these properties which can aid your stress, pain, anxiousness, inflammation, psychosis, or seizures, along with some other assistance it can provide to your health and body.
How does CBD work in the body?
Just as we have a circulatory system, nervous system, and digestive system, so do we have what’s called an “endocannabinoid” system. This system maintains our bodies’ balance at a cellular level.
The Endocannabinoid System
In 1992, an Israeli scientist named Dr. Raphael Mechoulam identified a neurotransmitter called a cannabinoid. He found this neurotransmitter while researching how the body responds to cannabis.
A cannabinoid is basically a compound that acts on — and stimulates — cannabinoid receptors. These receptors are called CB1 & CB2 receptors.
What does the endocannabinoid system do exactly?
The endocannabinoid system plays a crucial role in regulating a broad range of everyday physiological processes. These processes include regulating our mood, energy level, intestinal strength, immunity, blood pressure, bone density, metabolism of glucose, feelings of pain, stress, hunger, and more. As you can tell, it is an extremely important mechanism to maintain feelings of good health and balance in our bodies.
What happens if our endocannabinoid system doesn’t function properly or if it is chronically deficient or overactive?
By regulating the endocannabinoid system, CBD and other phytocannabinoids can slow – or sometimes even stop – disease progression.
CB1 and CB2 receptors
The endocannabinoid system has receptors (CB1 and CB2) located in the brain, peripheral organs, immune cells and gastrointestinal tract. These receptors communicate with endocannabinoids to regulate many bodily functions. This includes these 7 benefits:
Appetite suppressant (some cannabinoids) and appetite enhancer (other cannabinoids)
CBD also interacts with critical receptors such as serotonin, dopamine and opioid receptors. These receptors are ones that regulate psychological behaviors like aggression and anxiety, and physiological conditions like pain and inflammation.
When we don’t have the necessary endocannabinoids doing their job, phytocannabinoids (like CBD) can help bring the body back to homeostasis. Essentially, CBD interacts with the endocannabinoid system by preventing the breakdown of the body’s endocannabinoids.
CB1 receptors are located primarily on nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. Because CB1 receptors are found in pertinent parts of the brain, CBD can influence memory, pain, and motor control. CB1 receptors can also be found in peripheral organs and tissues such as the spleen, white blood cells, endocrine gland and also parts of the gastrointestinal, reproductive and urinary tracts.
CB2 receptors are mainly found on white blood cells, in the spleen and in the tonsils. This means that CBD can help with immunity and inflammation.
Our bodies produce cannabinoids constantly. Cannabinoids are made by the system to keep you balanced and healthy. If your body isn’t producing the necessary cannabinoids naturally, then phytocannabinoids — like those found in hemp — are extremely helpful. Whether it is phytocannabinoids or endocannabinoids doing the job, the cannabinoids in question can help regulate mood, stress, appetite, sleep, blood pressure, cognition, motivation, pain, immunity, motor control, inflammation and additional functions.
Endocannabinoids: created by the body, but can be deficient within the body.
Phytocannabinoids: originate from plants; primarily — but not exclusively — cannabis. (CBD is made from industrial hemp and is therefore a phytocannabinoid.)
Synthetic cannabinoids: manufactured in a lab and often used for research.
The 9 Primary Cannabinoids
Psychoactive. It is useful for controlling pain, reducing inflammation, reducing nausea and vomiting, and stimulating appetite. It also aids with insomnia, manages glaucoma, reduces muscle spasms, and protects the nervous system.
Non-psychotropic (what others call non-psychoactive; see difference mentioned above). At any rate, it doesn’t produce a high. It has anti-anxiety effects and is also an antipsychotic. Other applications are as an anti-inflammatory, anti-spasmodic, and analgesic. Finally, CBD protects the nervous system, even more than does THC. This makes it a great tool for managing Parkinson’s Disease, seizures, autism, dementia, and for post-stroke therapy.
Non-psychoactive. It is useful for reducing nausea, seizures, muscle spasms, and fighting tumor and cancer cells.
Non-psychoactive. It is also useful for reducing nausea, seizures, muscle spasms, and fighting tumor and cancer cells.
A breakdown product of THC. Great for aiding sleep, and for reducing pain and muscle spasms.
Found only in tiny amounts in a mature plant because it is the precursor molecule that is turned into THCA and CBDA as the cannabis plant develops.
Useful as an antidepressant, a muscle relaxant, an antibiotic and anti fungal agent, and as a blood pressure reducer.
Also found in only tiny amounts. It is good for reducing pain and inflammation, and having antibiotic, anti fungal and anti-cancer effects.
Psychoactive, but less so than THC. It suppresses appetite and can aid in weight loss. It also has anti-seizure effects.
Are hemp and marijuana the same thing?
While many people equate the word cannabis with “marijuana,” cannabis is actually a designation for a family of plants that have two primary classifications — Indica and Sativa. Marijuana can be from either Indica or Sativa, but hemp is only a member of the Cannabis Sativa family.
Applications of Hemp and Marijuana
Hemp and marijuana serve completely different purposes. Marijuana is used either for medicinal or recreational purposes. Hemp is used in variety of other applications, some of which are both interesting and surprising:
Sunglasses and ski goggles
Composites for Automobiles
3-D Printing Filament and Bio-plastics
Soil Remediation and Reclamation
Overall, hemp is known to have over 25,000 possible applications to date.
Don’t the plants look the same?
Surprisingly, hemp plants and marijuana plants look remarkably different. Hemp plants have tall, fibrous stalks that are very strong, have very few flowering buds, and have skinnier leaves concentrated at the top. Hemp plants can grow to be almost 15 feet tall. Industrial hemp is produced to contain only trace amounts of THC (no more than 0.3%).
Marijuana plants are short and bushy. They usually have broad leaves and dense buds. They typically don’t grow to be taller than 5 feet. These plants have high amounts of THC (5%-40%).
What’s amazing is that industrial hemp and medical marijuana are so distinctively different that most laypeople wouldn’t be able to tell that they belong to the same genus of plants if they saw them in the wild!
The environment in which these two types of plants are grown is also strikingly different. Hemp is grown closely together. In fact, they can be as close as 4 inches apart. They are typically grown in large multi-acre plots. Hemp can also grow in variety of climates. It has a long growth cycle of 108-120 days.
Medical marijuana plants cannot be grown too close to each other — typically being placed 6 feet apart. Marijuana requires a carefully controlled, warm, and humid atmosphere for optimal growth. Its growth cycle is a short 60-90 days.
In addition, if marijuana were to grow among — or even close to — a hemp field, the hemp’s pollen would immediately ruin the marijuana crop by diluting the marijuana plants’ psychoactive nature.
Since marijuana has large amounts of THC, it is grown for its psychoactive nature. Marijuana can be smoked, inhaled, ingested or injected directly into the body. THC can also be extracted from the plant and used in capsules, vaporizers, edibles and more.
Contrastingly, hemp is primarily used for industrial purposes since it is capable of producing hundreds of crucial resources. Hemp is also used to produce a wide variety of THC-free CBD products such as capsules, soft gels, edibles, vape oils, sublingual oils, beauty products, and more.
Is CBD safe?
CBD has been found to be both non-addictive and non-toxic. Researchers have tested (on humans) the use of CBD up to thousands of milligrams per day and have found that it is not possible to overdose.
A typical dose for most people ranges between a couple of milligrams per day to 200 milligrams per day. Some people with serious conditions may take as much as 500-1000 milligrams per day, and this is still deemed 100% safe.
Can you take too much CBD?
As mentioned above, Cannabidiol and other cannabinoids are known to be non-toxic, with no known fatal overdose levels ever reported. A research study from 2011 (published in the journal Current Drug Safety) indicated that chronic use and relatively high doses of up to 1500 mg/day of CBD are reportedly well tolerated in humans.
In order for CBD to be toxic to your system, you would have to ingest as much as 20,000 milligrams of CBD oil in a very short amount of time. To do this would be challenging in and of itself, but it would also be cost prohibitive for many people. It would cost upwards of $2000 to ingest CBD products that would add up to 20,000 milligrams. In addition, it would be unpleasant to consume it all at once! A typical serving ranges between 2 and 50 milligrams. You can see how hard it would be to take in 20,000 milligrams!
One more point worth noting on this topic is that there are no withdrawal symptoms if you stop taking CBD, even if you’ve been taking it for an extended period of time.
Are there side effects?
Here is a complete list of side effects of CBD oil that have been reported or documented (according to current research and studies):
Dry Mouth. CBD oil can cause dry mouth in some users. While researchers aren’t completely sure of the reason for this, a study published in 2006 showed that CB1 and CB2 receptors are present in the glands responsible for producing saliva. When these receptors are triggered, your saliva production can drop, which leads to a feeling of having a dry mouth. This is not dangerous in any way and will do nothing more than prompt you to drink a little more water than usual.
Lower Blood Pressure. High doses of CBD oil can cause a slight drop in blood pressure in some people. This typically occurs within only a few minutes of CBD entering your system. This doesn’t happen to everyone, and the worst that can happen is a few minutes of feeling lightheaded. However, if you have any problems with low or high blood pressure, or if you are taking any medications for blood pressure, talk to your doctor before trying CBD oil.
Lightheadedness or Dizziness. This is usually connected to low blood pressure, as mentioned above. Some individuals feel slightly dizzy for a few moments after they take in CBD oil. This typically passes within a few minutes on its own. It can also be resolved by laying down for a few moments.
Nausea. Some people have found that ingesting a large dose of CBD oil can cause mild stomach discomfort. This is based off reports from users, not from from scientific studies. This is an usual side effect, since CBD oil is used to help relieve nausea and increase appetite. If you do happen to get nauseous, it will be mild and usually dissipates quickly. If you find this happens to you, simply take a smaller dose next time.
Sleepiness or drowsiness. This side effect of CBD oil should hardly come as a surprise, because high doses of CBD oil can be used as a sleep aid for insomniacs. At low doses, CBD oil causes relaxation and diminished pain or anxiety (pain and anxiety can cause sleep disorders). At higher doses, it can produce drowsiness. If you find that CBD oil makes you drowsy, don’t take CBD oil before operating machinery or driving a vehicle. Remember, CBD oil can sometimes take a few hours to kick in.
Increased Tremors in People with Parkinson’s Disease. Early research suggested that a side effect of a high dose of CBD oil is to worsen the muscle tremors associated with Parkinson’s Disease. More recent research has indicated that at low doses it may also be safe and even helpful for those struggling with this disease. Since there is some ambiguity on this topic, we strongly suggest consulting your medical practitioner before trying CBD.
Headaches. CBD can occasionally cause headaches in some people. CBD oil is used to treat headaches and migraines, and there are more people than not who report that CBD effectively relieves their pain symptoms. If you experience headaches as a side effect of CBD, you’ve most likely purchased a lower quality CBD product. It may contain solvents, such as ethanol and isopropanol, which some people are sensitive too. In this case, it’s advisable to switch to a higher-quality CBD oil or other product. Your headache symptoms should go away.
As you can tell, most of these side effects are mild ones that can be easily addressed and that go away quickly. CBD is incredibly safe. Side effects are few and far between. The ones that do occur are typically only mildly annoying and can be eradicated by taking a lower dose next time.
What is the optimal dosage of CBD?
Many people assume that a higher dose is better. This actually is not always the case. Everyone’s body is different, and everyone’s health concerns are different. Sometimes, a more potent dose may surprisingly have the opposite effect of what you are seeking. In other words, if 10 milligrams of CBD relaxes you, you might assume that 50 mg would make you even more relaxed. However, you may find that a higher dose actually stimulates you. “An excessive amount of CBD could be less effective therapeutically than a moderate dose.” (projectcbd.org) Because of this, it is important to really pay attention to your body’s personal response and reaction to varying doses.
Another factor to consider is whether you have an acute concern — like a sprained ankle — or a chronic concern — like hip pain. Acute problems often need a stronger dose of any treatment initially, which can then be decreased or eliminated over time. Chronic concerns (something that is persistent and ongoing) may require a smaller dose more regularly. Since traditional doctors don’t typically prescribe CBD for medical ailments, you will have to monitor how the supplement works for you.
How to Calculate CBD Potency
Calculating CBD potency can seem confusing at first.
Because a container of a hemp CBD product will say something like “450 mg,” this may make you think the strength of one dose is 450 milligrams. However, the amount of CBD listed on the package is the amount contained in the entire package. This means you must divide these total milligrams by the quantity of servings in the bottle. In other words, if the bottle contains 30 soft gels and a total of 450 mg of CBD, the strength per soft gel is 450 divided by 30 which equals 15 milligrams per soft gel (450/30=15).
Our shop (www.enliveencbdstore.com) has simplified this for you, and we have noted the milligrams per dose on all of our product descriptions. We have also created a “Potency” category that you can use to find aproduct with a dose in a specific range.
Biphasic Nature and Bell Curve
We are often asked, “What dosage of CBD should I take?”
This is a very complicated question. Some people experience benefits at only 1 to 2 milligrams per day. Others may require 1000s of milligrams.
There are many variables that go into determining a proper dose: weight, age, sensitivity to medications, sensitivity to cannabis, possible drug interactions, past experience with cannabis, how serious the health condition is, and other factors. One thing that we do know is that CBD follows a biphasic bell curve — and sometimes a triphasic curve.
To understand this, imagine that bell curve. As you gradually increase your dose, your benefits go up until a point at which the benefits plateau. After this point, it has been observed that as more CBD is ingested, the benefits actually decrease. In some cases, though, a second bell curve will form making a biphasic or multiphasic curve. This means that after you have lost benefit when increasing the dose, you can sometimes regain increased benefits when the dose is radically increased again.
This biphasic nature means, however, that simply taking more CBD does not necessarily mean you will reap more rewards. We live in a culture where “more is more,” but in the case of CBD, more is NOT always more.
Proportional Increment Method
So how does a person know what dose of CBD to take?
Cannabis doctors recommend a titration method of starting at sub-therapeutic doses and slowly increasing until the benefits are realized. At En-Live-En CBD store, we refer to this as the Proportional Increment Method.
Once you achieve the benefits you are seeking, you can continue to increase the dosage slowly until the benefits start to decrease. Then you should return to the slightly lower dosage where the maximum benefits were experienced.
In addition, it is good to note that it is more beneficial to take two or three smaller doses throughout the day rather than one big dose. In other words, if you find that 50 milligrams of CBD is the perfect amount for you, take 25 milligrams in the morning and again in the evening, rather than 50 milligrams all at once. The reason is that our bodies can only utilize a certain amount before the CBD is “wasted.”
A cannabis doctor in Portland, Maine — Dr. Dustin Sulak — talks about something called a sensitization protocol. This protocol is used when someone who has been taking high doses of cannabis stops receiving benefits from the cannabis.
It has been found that in these cases, increasing the cannabis dosage will actually continue to decrease benefits. When the sensitization protocol is implemented, the dosage is radically reduced or even fully eliminated with a cannabis “fast.” After this, the dosage is gradually increased again until benefits are experienced. It has become apparent that in these cases, the successful dosages end up being a fraction of what the user was consuming before the protocol was implemented.
What about drug interactions?
It is very important to realize that CBD does interact with some medications. You should always talk to a medical professional if you are currently on medication.
The way your body metabolizes CBD can interfere with how you normally metabolize other drugs you take. If those other drugs aren’t metabolized properly, they can stay in your system longer than you want. This can cause some negative side effects or possible complications.
One type of drug you should pay special attention to are blood thinners. Warfarin is an example. Taking CBD with warfarin can make the warfarin hang out in your system for too long without it being metabolized.
This doesn’t mean that CBD drug interactions are always bad. They can actually be a beneficial thing, if properly monitored. CBD can make other drugs more effective — so much so that you may be able to reduce the dosage of those other drugs, leading to fewer negative side effects from the pharmaceutical medication.
What causes the conflict with other medications?
The conflict is the result of a family of liver enzymes (Cytochrome P450) being inhibited by CBD and other phytocannabinoids. This important enzyme group metabolizes most of the pharmaceuticals we consume, including more than 60 percent of available medications.
Role of Cytochrome P450
CBD — at sufficient dosages — will temporarily deactivate Cytochrome P450 enzymes. Research shows that CBD can displace its chemical competitors which prevents Cytochrome P450 from metabolizing other compounds.
Low doses of Cannabidiol will have no noticeable effect on Cytochrome P450 activity. However, there is no clearly established dose, below which CBD won’t interact with other drugs.
CBD can either decrease or increase the breakdown of other pharmaceuticals. It truly depends on the medication in question and the dosage of Cannabidiol used. Rather than eliminating the option of using CBD for your health concerns, you could talk with your doctor about adjusting the current dosage of your other medications so that you can use both products safely.
Interestingly, CBD oil is not alone in its effect on drug metabolism. Grapefruit, watercress, goldenseal, and St. John’s Wort all have a similar inhibiting action on Cytochrome P450.
If you are wary of talking to your doctor about Cannabidiol, you may be able to use the “grapefruit test” to determine if you can consume CBD.
Have you ever been told not to take your medication with grapefruit? This is because compounds in grapefruits can interfere with the metabolism of many medications.
CBD does the same thing. But as I said above, the effect is even stronger with CBD.
Do the grapefruit test with your doctor or pharmacist. Ask them: “Should I avoid eating grapefruit or drinking grapefruit juice with this medication?”
They will know exactly what you are talking about. If they say that you should avoid grapefruit with your medication, you now know you need to be careful about mixing CBD with those same medications as well. Talk to your doctor about CBD, and ask if they can adjust your medication to allow you to use CBD.
CBD and Caffeine
Caffeine is probably the world’s most commonly consumed “psychoactive drug.” Most people ingest at least a little bit here and there.
Since CBD oil is gaining popularity, many people want to know if they can consume both at the same time.
As it turns out, the two substances go together nicely!
For the sake of this manual, it is sufficient to say that both CBD and caffeine block adenosine (which is a compound produced in our bodies). Blocking adenosine results in vasodilation, which increases clarity and alertness.
However, CBD also reduces anxiety — due to its effects on other neurotransmitter systems — so the combination of CBD with caffeine can increase alertness and clarity while decreasing the jitters that can accompany caffeine.
It is worth noting that these effects depend on the dosage of CBD. High amounts of CBD tend to make you feel sleepy and sedated.
Caffeine is also metabolized by a Cytochrome P450 enzyme. Since Cannabidiol inhibits this enzyme system, caffeine will secrete more slowly. This can result in the stimulating effect being more prolonged and drawn out. This means it is not wise to take this combination close to bedtime!
CBD and Alcohol
There is some research that describes how CBD and alcohol interact, but for the sake of this manual, here is an overview of the benefits and effects of the interaction:
Combining CBD and alcohol can result in significantly lower blood alcohol levels.
CBD reduces the likelihood of alcohol relapse.
CBD protects the liver from damage caused by binge-drinking alcohol.
CBD prevents against neurodegeneration caused by alcohol consumption.
CBD reduces the degree of liver steatosis, metabolic dysregulation, inflammation and neutrophil-mediated injury caused by consuming alcohol.
Cannabinoids can affect nearly all enzymes responsible for metabolizing alcohol.
Because CBD is a CB1 receptor antagonist, CBD can decrease the desire for alcohol.
CBD inhibits the Cytochrome P450 enzyme system which plays a significant role in alcohol metabolism.
CBD Versus Opioids
The DEA has declared that the country is in the midst of an opioid addiction crisis. In the United States, forty-four people die every day from prescription opioid overdose. If you include heroin in the equation, the number increases to 78 deaths every day.
Prescription opioid abuse and addiction is actually a substantially larger problem than heroin addiction in America. In 2014, for example, nineteen thousand people died from an opioid overdose and around eleven thousand died from a heroin overdose. In addition, many heroin users begin their addiction with prescription opioids. Nearly 7,000 people in the United States are treated in emergency rooms every day due to a misuse of a prescription opioid. In fact, one out of three prescriptions for opioids gets abused.
America consumes 80 percent of the world’s opioids while representing only 5 percent of the world’s population. Some countries even have trouble getting opioids for important medical needs like post-surgery and end-of-life treatment.
Based on research results from 2014, it is ironic to note that there is insufficient evidence to show that using opioids for an extended period is effective for improving chronic pain. In addition, the researchers did find an increased risk of serious harm associated with long-term opioid use. The risks include overdose, fractures, heart attacks, and sexual dysfunction.
In contrast, the American Academy of Neurology reported in the same year that an oral cannabis extract can be used to treat chronic neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis with extremely good results. It has been shown through many research studies that cannabis oil extract can effectively treat chronic pain.
One other worthwhile point to note is that using cannabis in combination with a prescription medication for pain can decrease the amount of prescription medication needed, thereby making it safer for the patient. Obviously, you should consult with a medical professional if this is a route you want to take.
What’s the best way to take CBD?
There is no one right way to take CBD. It depends on various factors like whether you want it to impact you quickly or if you desire a delayed or slow-release effect. You may have a different decision depending on whether you’ve used cannabis before. Also, your choice may be influenced by weather you enjoy the earthy taste of hemp.
Options If You Like the Earthy Taste
Sublingual Oil or Tincture
The most common way to consume CBD is via an oil or tincture (you would administer this with a dropper). You place drops of oil under your tongue, hold it there for 60-90 seconds, and then swallow. This method provides fast-acting relief. Because it is sublingual and there are extensive capillaries under your tongue, the CBD goes right into your blood stream rather than through your digestive system.
This CBD option is a simple way to enjoy your CBD, if you can tolerate the flavor. Many sublingual oils have terpenes in them, providing various flavors to mask the earthy-quality of hemp.
CBD edibles come in chocolates, baked goods, gummy bears, hard candies, gum, and lozenges. For the most part, they will have a subtle or dramatic hemp flavor, regardless of other flavor/terpenes present.
Consuming CBD this way delays the effects on your system by as much as a couple of hours. Because it goes through your digestive system, it takes a while to experience the effects. If you need immediate relief, you may want to combine edibles with something else (like a sublingual oil or a vape) or substitute it with another option entirely.
Options If You Don’t Like the Earthy Taste
The nice thing about CBD soft gels is that they are smooth and easy to swallow. You also know the exact amount of CBD that your are consuming. There is a slight delay in your body experiencing the benefits of the CBD, but it is a nice discreet way of enjoying your CBD.
CBD Capsules are another option. They often have a powder base, that is dissolved quickly into your body’s system. Sometimes they are harder for people to swallow, but if you don’t tend to have trouble with other capsule supplements, you won’t have trouble with these either.
You can vaporize CBD if you want to feel the effects of CBD quickly without the adverse effects of actually smoking. This is popular for consumers of high CBD and high THC products. It is very useful if you desire quick results.
Vaping is a very relaxing and pleasing way of enjoying your CBD. It comes in an e-liquid format and can either be an additive to other e-liquids, or used as it’s own e-liquid. If you already enjoy vaping, adding CBD to your vaping options is a no-brainer. If you don’t currently vape, but would enjoy a relaxing way of taking in your CBD, you may want to explore vaping as your option.
This is a popular method for those looking for localized pain or muscle relief. If you have muscle or joint issues, you may want to consider a CBD cream, balm, or ointment. Topical CBD comes in tubs, jars, bottles, and lotions. These can be rubbed directly into the target area. They all have nice textures, albeit different ones. Find one you like and you will enjoy this application!
Another option for a topical or transdermal CBD treatment is a patch. With these patches, the CBD is on a pad in the patch, which is then applied to the body somewhat like a band aid. They usually have an extended release format that can range from 8 to 96 hours long. It’s also a nice option for targeting a specific point. While they are typically waterproof, you may want to consider other options if you are in the water a lot, in particular chlorinated pools and the like.
A new trend is the bath bombs. CBD bath bombs are added into your bath water like you would do with a bubble bath. It is great for relaxing sore muscles.
One of the really nice things about hemp CBD products is that they are so varied! You can definitely find a format that appeals to you and works for your needs.
Can CBD help with …
CBD is a molecule, not a miracle. However, research has shown that CBD oil may be effective as a treatment for a variety of conditions and health issues. Scientific studies demonstrate the effectiveness of CBD to help relieve some of the symptoms associated with the following conditions: glaucoma, pain, inflammation, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, Huntington’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Alzheimer’s. It appears to help some people with gut diseases, as well, such as gastric ulcers, Crohn’s disease, and irritable bowel syndrome. (Maurya & Velmurugan, 2018).
A phenomenal source for research references done on just about every medical condition you can think of is www.projectcbd.org. On their website, they have an extensive list of conditions that you can select on to see the available research on that ailment. It is definitely worth looking at if you have a specific concern you’d like to address with CBD.
Below is just a short summary of some of the research and thoughts on the benefits of CBD and a few select conditions.
Maurya, N. & Velmurugan, B.K. (2018). Therapeutic applications of cannabinoids. Chemico-Biological Interactions, 293, 77-88.
In the US, the FDA approved a purified, pharmaceutical-grade formulation of Cannabidiol — called Epidiolex — for use with children with Lennox-Gastaut and Dravet syndromes. Epidolex is a synthetic cannabinoid — a chemical component of the Cannabis Sativa plant.
The good news is it does help children with seizures, in particular the above mentioned syndromes. However, the downside is a tolerance to the medication emerges in many patients. This means that over time (about a year or two), the dosage may have to be increased to get the same results.
It seems that it is better to start with a lower dose for a couple of reasons. In a clinical trial, the researches found that patients given a 10 milligram daily dose of CBD experienced nearly the same reduction in seizures as patients on 20 milligrams. In addition, if the dosage is going to have to be increased down the road, it is better to start with the lowest therapeutic dose in the beginning.
There are a number of studies that have found that CBD reduces self-reported anxiety as well as anxiousness that was induced or exists in patients without a mental disorder. (Loflin et al. (2017)).
Many cannabinoids have soothing and calming properties. For this reason, cannabinoids have been widely studied to understand how they work and to find applications for them. Some studies that explore these properties are not yet conclusive, however many doctors consider cannabinoids — and in particularly Cannabidiol — a possible option for soothing and relaxation.
Loflin, MJE, Babson, K.A., & Bonn-Miller, M.O. (2017). Cannabinoids as therapeutic for PTSD
Current Opinion in Psychology, 14, 78-83.
… chronic and acute pain?
Cannabinoids have been shown to reduce the intensity of pain (to have analgesic properties). This is the case with inflammatory pain, neuropathic pain, and cancer pain.
Cannabinoids can reduce spasticity and often also reduces the pain associated with muscle spasm. In addition to decreasing the intensity of pain, many patients report that cannabis changes the nature of the pain. They report that CBD makes the pain more bearable and less distracting.
In certain cases, CBD is now regarded as a viable alternative to strong analgesics when it comes to chronic pain management. CBD is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. As such, CBD solutions may be less powerful than opioid-based analgesics, but have far fewer side effects than these strong painkillers, and no addictive nature.
In addition to helping chronic pain, CBD also provides pain relief for acute pain. While its direct analgesic properties are sometimes less potent than most opioid-based painkillers, that fact that CBD also reduces inflammation may mean that it can be more efficient against inflammatory pain than conventional analgesics.
CBD’s pain-relief mechanisms are not yet fully understood. However, CBD and other cannabinoids have been shown to have effective analgesic properties for terminal cancer patients who have developed a resistance to strong opioids. This suggests that Cannabidiol might be an effective alternative for pain relief even for patients whose bodies have are accustomed to high doses of powerful painkillers.
In the study by Loflin et al. (2017) (see reference above in the anxiety section) on sleep quality, they administered 40, 80, and 160 milligram CBD capsules on 15 individuals with insomnia. Results suggested that 160 milligrams of CBD was associated with an overall improvement in self-reported sleep quality.
Cannabinoids have been shown to target and affect cancer cells but not normal, healthy cells.In some types of cancer, cannabinoids have prevented the growth of tumors, have killed cancer cells, have prevented the formation of blood vessels that feed the tumor, and have inhibited the metastasis of cancer from one part of the body to another.
We are still very early in our understanding of how to best use cannabis to fight various types of cancer. However, it is well-established that cannabis can help with the symptoms of cancer and also with the side effects of cancer treatment, such as chemotherapy.
More than 12 years ago — in 2007 — researchers at California Pacific Medical Center finished one of the earliest studies on the effects of CBD on cancer. This study came to the conclusion that CBD shows promise for controlling the spread of malignant breast tumors. They even found that CBD stalled metastasis — which is the process of cancerous cells spreading into different parts of the body — by “turning off” the activity of a gene that is responsible for tumor metastasis.
In more recent years, numerous studies have verified that CBD inhibits several types of cancer including breast cancer, colon cancer, some types of brain tumors, leukemia and other forms of cancer. These results have been verified by many scientific teams, however it has not yet been determined how CBD’s inhibitory effects work. CBD has also been shown to inhibit benign tumor growth.
Most surprising, perhaps, is that CBD has been shown to directly improve our body’s ability to fight cancer. More specifically, CBD has been shown to cause cell death in breast cancer cells. It does this by coordinating the communication between two of our body’s defense mechanisms against cancer — apoptosis (the process of programmed cell death) and autophagy (the breakdown of individual cell components). When these processes are combined, they weaken and kill cancer cells.
Research studies on diabetes have tested CBD and other cannabinoids as potential medications for treating diabetes. CBD has been found to havea mild “regulating” effect on the bodies of diabetes sufferers. This regulating effect counteracts “dysregulating” effects that some metabolic diseases cause to the human body.
For instance, CBD has been shown to protect against diabetes-induced blindness. It preserves a delicate chemical balance, which encourages the activity of an enzyme known as glutamine synthetase. Glutamine sythetase helps protect our retinal neurons. Cannabidiol also seems to alleviate albuminuria. Albuminuria is a pathological condition that is associated with diabetic nephropathy — a serious progressive kidney disease that is caused by longstanding diabetes.
Perhaps one of the most exciting factors in evaluating CBD’s efficiency as a medication for diabetes is that it seems to help both type I and type II diabetics. This means that whether people have diabetes from early in their lives or whether they acquired it later on, CBD seems to assist in alleviating the symptoms and counteracting the causes.
A preliminary clinical trial at the University of California at Irvine has concluded that CBD seems to treat schizophrenia as effectively as current antipsychotic medications. A nice plus is that it does so with far fewer side effects and at a lesser cost. Daniele Piomelli, a professor of pharmacology at the university and co-author of the research study had this to say, “The results were amazing, not only was [CBD] as effective as standard antipsychotics, but it was also essentially free of the typical side effects seen with antipsychotic drugs.”
Typical side effects of antipsychotic drugs include lack of motivation, social withdrawal, and anxiety, all of which also occur in schizophrenia itself. Since the antipsychotic drugs can themselves cause some of schizophrenia’s symptoms, it is unclear as to whether CBD is better at treating them or whether CBD is simply causing fewer of these side effects. Many current studies are trying to answer this question.
Post-traumatic stress disorder is a mental condition that develops after a person has experienced or witnessed a traumatic event. PTSD is common in military veterans. It can also develop following any type of traumatic event, to include things like a physical attack, mugging, kidnapping, plane crash, car accident, or natural disaster.
The Mayo Clinic describes PTSD as causing flashbacks, severe anxiety, nightmares, and uncontrollable thoughts about the event. The sufferer often feels stressed and in danger even though no real threat exists. The National Institute of Mental Health adds that other symptoms of PTSD can include avoiding places or events that are reminders of the trauma, feeling numbness or guilt, losing interest in activities they used to find enjoyable, being easily startled, feeling tense, having difficulty sleeping, and experiencing angry outbursts.
Studies have shown that cannabinoids lessen the emotional impact of traumatic events. Cannabinoids decrease the “re-experiencing” of the event. CBD additionally helps patients experience less anxiety and fear, and it can improve their sleep.
One study showed that when using cannabis, PTSD patients saw a 75% reduction in PTSD symptoms — as measured by the Clinical Administered Post-traumatic Scale — compared to when they were not using cannabis.
… bipolar disorder and mental health?
Only a bit of research has been done on how CBD may effect people with mental health concerns. One promising study, though, was conducted in 2018 in the UK. These researchers were investigating the effects of CBD on psychosis. They found that one megadose (of about 600 milligrams) eradicated or significantly reduced psychotic episodes. Much more research needs to be done, but this is exciting news.
In line with this finding is other research on CBD and mental disorders that indicates the therapeutic dose is usually much higher than what is currently used by consumers as “a dose.” For instance, most over-the-counter CBD oils and supplements are in containers that consist of a total of 250 to 1000 milligrams — which equates to a single dose of about 10 to 35 milligrams. Therapeutic doses for mental disorders seem to be much higher — more in the realm of the total number of milligrams in a standard CBD product package.
What to Look for When Choosing a CBD Product
A Certificate of Analysis (COA) is a report generated by a third-party laboratory that tests for toxic residues, mildew, mold, metals and other harmful contaminants. Additionally, COA reports indicate the levels of the different cannabinoids, flavonoids and terpenes present in the product. These lab reports are important to read to see if the actual strength is equal to the advertised strength, as well as to reveal whether any dangerous elements are present.
A company that makes their independent lab reports easily accessible to consumers is a sign of great transparency. The companies that make the highest quality CBD products will usually display these reports on their websites or will provide one to you if you request it. Our SHOP (www.enliveencbdstore.com) does provide COAs for its products.
CBD Extraction Methods
In simple terms, CO2 extraction uses pressurized carbon dioxide — CO2 — to pull CBD (and other phytochemicals) out of the plant (in this case cannabis). CO2 acts like a solvent at certain temperatures and pressures. It is a safe and effective extraction method, but it is also extremely expensive due to the equipment required.
CO2 typically behaves like a gas at standard pressure and temperature. It is easily changed to a solid (known as “dry ice”) while in this state. Using the lab equipment, CO2 gas is turned into a liquid by dropping the temperature below -69 degrees Fahrenheit while increasing the pressure to over 75 pounds per square inch (psi). Once you’ve done this, you have your starting point for CO2 extraction.
Now that you have the liquid CO2, the next step is to increase the pressure and temperature past the point where the liquid becomes “supercritical.” “Supercritical” means the CO2 is now able to adopt properties halfway between a gas and liquid at the same time. In essence, the supercritical CO2 is able to fill a container like a gas does, while it also maintains density like a liquid does. When CO2 is in its supercritical state, it is perfect for chemical extraction, because it doesn’t cause damage that would make it unfit for human consumption.
The solution then gets separated and broken down into its parts. The cannabinoids, trichomes, flavinoids, and terpenes are sent to the collection container. Meanwhile, the supercritical CO2 goes through a condenser and re-liquifies. Finally, the liquid goes to a storage tank and can be used again.
Some of the benefits of this type of extraction are:
It is very safe. CO2 is a common food additive.
It is very effective. Food companies have used CO2 as an extraction solvent for years.
It creates a pure product. The cannabinoids produced are potent and free of chlorophyll and there is minimal risk of contaminants.
Some of the cons of CO2 extraction include:
It is expensive. The equipment costs about $39,000.
You have to have high technical abilities. The CO2 extraction process is not something that should be attempted by an amateur.
Olive oil is the most commonly used carrier oil for this type of extraction. This is an affordable and inexpensive way to extract CBD and can be performed at home. The first step involves ensuring the raw plant material is “decarboxylated,” which means you must heat the plant at a certain temperature for a specific length of time to activate the plant’s chemicals.
Experts usually recommend heating the plant material in the olive oil at high temperatures and for an extended period of time. (Recipes are available online if you want more specifics.) The cannabinoids are extracted by doing this and hopefully results in an oil with the CBD content you desire.
Some of the benefits of this type of extraction are:
It is very safe. You can’t hurt yourself using this method.
It is inexpensive. You can set everything up at home for a minimal investment.
Some of the cons of carrier oil extraction include:
It is perishable. Regardless of what cannabinoids are in your oil, it is highly perishable so you must store it in a cool, dark place immediately.
It produces low yields. A company wouldn’t use this method due to its labor-intensive nature.
Alcohol, Ethanol & Butane
Ethanol — which is simply a low-grade alcohol — and butane are among the most common substances used in extraction. Although ethanol does extract the full range of cannabinoids and terpenes from the plant, it also extracts chlorophyll which may lead to some unpleasant side effects. You can remove the chlorophyll by filtering the extract, but this will significantly reduce the oil’s potency.
You can create a stronger oil with butane, but it is more likely to contain dangerous solvents which irritate the lungs.
To do this extraction, add the liquid — butane, alcohol or ethanol — to the plant material. The extraction liquid will strip away the cannabinoids and flavor from the plant material. It will also take some of the color as well. Once you believe you have enough liquid cannabinoids, heat the liquid. This evaporates it down to the CBD base oil.
Some of the benefits of this type of extraction are:
It is appropriate to use it for some products, such as a vape. If you use a high-grade alcohol, you may produce an oil suitable for vaping cartridges.
It is a very straightforward process. Once you have the equipment, it isn’t difficult or expensive to complete the process.
Some of the cons of solvent extraction include:
It is extremely dangerous. Butane and ethanol are flammable, so it is a risky way to extract CBD.
It is potentially harmful. As well as destroying plant waxes, solvent extraction can produce oil that contains chlorophyll and other harmful contaminants.
Most of the organic industrial hemp that’s grown in the U.S. is sourced from Colorado and Kentucky. Colorado was one of the first states to legalize industrial hemp farms.
You’ll also find some producers source their hemp from Europe. Europe has had longstanding regulations enforcing organic farming. Their requirement are even stricter than those designated as “organic” in the United States. In fact, GMOs have been outlawed in Europe for many years and so have most of the pesticides and insecticides that are still used here.
The biggest word of caution we can offer is to not buy CBD products made with Chinese hemp. Chinese hemp and Chinese CBD have been found to be contaminated with lead. Some manufacturers will use cheap Chinese hemp to produce a less expensive product to compete on price with the better-quality brands.
Hemp Oil Versus CBD Oil: Is there a difference?
While researching where to buy CBD online, you’ll notice companies often use the terms CBD oil and hemp oil interchangeably. This can be confusing to the consumer, so it is important for people to understand the difference. Hemp oil and CBD oil actually come from different parts of the plant. Hemp oil has no CBD and no THC. It’s made from pressing the seeds of the plant. Hemp oil is used for everyday items like lotions, soaps, and even foods.
Contrastingly, CBD oil is created from the flowers, leaves and other parts of the hemp plant and is rich in cannabinoids. Both hemp oil and CBD oil are packed with amino acids and vitamins, but CBD oil offers therapeutic benefits that hemp oil does not.
CBD oil may contain more than 0.3% THC, but these products can only be purchased in states where medical and/or recreational marijuana is legalized, and it cannot be purchased online.
Industrial hemp is the only plant used for hemp oil. CBD oil can be made from hemp or marijuana — and even some other plants. To purchase CBD products online, however, it cannot be made from marijuana. The only real reason to seek out marijuana CBD oil as opposed to hemp CBD oil is if you are looking for more THC in your product. Remember, no products sold online can have more than 0.3% THC.
Hemp oil uses:
Hemp oil is great for cooking. It is full of nutrients. It offers a crispy and nutty taste to foods. You can use it as a tasty replacement for olive oil in salads.
It is a great natural moisturizer, and as a topical lotion or cream it can be used after a shower or simply throughout the day.
Hemp oil can be a base for various forms of plastic and is used in place of petroleum.
It is used in the production of eco-friendly paints in place of petroleum-based ones.
It can be used as bio-diesel fuel.
CBD oil uses:
It can be used in the treatment of some medical conditions (discussed above).
It can be used to aid ailments for humans and for animals.
It has therapeutic properties lacking in hemp oil.
What are terpenes?
Terpenes are natural compounds found in cannabis and tens of thousands of other plants (particularly conifers). Terpenes give plants their bouquet of smells and flavors.
Additionally, terpenes work in conjunction with cannabinoids and provide their own unique therapeutic benefits.
It is the terpenes in plants that attract pollenating insects for plant reproduction. They also keep predators at bay and even kill them. They slow the maturation of the plant and regulate their metabolism. Terpenes are the “essence” of essential oils. Aromatherapy and essential oil treatments often use terpenes because of their medicinal properties. Some terpenes may develop due to a plant being stressed, for example in excessive heat.
The number of terpenes found in the cannabis plant ranges between 100 and 200 depending on which variation you are using.
Below is a list of some of the most common terpenes. Their characteristics and uses are described.
Mycerne is the most common terpene found in hemp. Over 60% of the essential oil is made up of mycerne in some hemp strains. It smells quite similar to cloves.
Myrcene has been revealed to be a potent analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antibiotic. It has a relaxing, calming, anti-spasmodic, and sedative effect.
Limonene is one of the next most abundant terpenes found in cannabis resin. It produces a smell resembling citrus fruits. In addition to limonene being found in cannabis, it is also found in citrus fruit rinds, rosemary, juniper, peppermint, and several pine needle oils.
A cancer study in 2013 revealed that limonene reduces tumors in women with early-stage breast cancer. Limonene easily and efficiently penetrates the blood barrier. This increases systolic pressure. Additionally, some experts say limonene increases attention, mental focus, well-being, and sex drive. And like mycerne, limonene contains anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, and anti-carcinogenic properties. It is also said to protect against carcinogens found in smoke.
Along with cannabis, many herbs and spices contain caryophyllene. Black pepper is one spice that contains high amounts of carophyllene. Black pepper is what gives caryophyllene that spicy flavor. In addition to black pepper, Thai basil, cinnamon, cloves, and lavender all contain caryophyllene.
As with the previous two terpenes, caryophyllene has anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-fungal properties. If applied topically, it also relieves toothaches.
An interesting fact about this terpene is its promising role in alcohol rehabilitation. In a study done on mice, researchers found that caryophyllene reduced the voluntary intake of alcohol.
Pinene, as the name suggests, creates the smell associated with pine (and fir) trees. Both conifers and non-coniferous plants produce pinene — along with balsamic resin, pinewoods, and some citrus fruits.
Pinene is used in medicines as an expectorant, bronchodilator, anti-inflammatory, and antiseptic. Pinene additionally improves concentration, personal satisfaction, well-being, and energy. Patients suffering from arthritis, Crohn’s Disease, or cancer may seek benefits from pinene.
Terpineol has aromas of lilacs, crabapple and lime blossoms. The plants listed above that have high-levels of pinene often also produce terpineol. Commercial producers of terpineol often extract this terpene from Monterey cypress trees.
Terpineol creates the sedative effect that is experienced in Indica strains of psychoactive cannabis. During tests on mice, terpineol reduced mobility by 45 percent. Experts also believe terpineol has antibiotic and antioxidant properties.
Borneol has aromas of mint and camphor.
Chinese herbalists use borneol in remedies against fatigue, stress, and lingering illnesses. A published study even indicates that borneol kills breast cancer cells. Additionally, some researchers believe this terpene is a natural insect repellent and could potentially be used against diseases caused by ticks, fleas, and mosquitoes — such as West Nile Virus.
Linalool has floral aromas similar to lavender and spring flowers. Linalool is found in mint, laurels, cinnamon, rosewood, and Birch trees.
Linalool has a calming action, is a natural anti-anxiety, and is a powerful sedative. In a study on mice, it was found that their activity decreased by 75% as a result of linalool. Additionally, it has analgesic and anti-epileptic properties. Some therapies use it in the treatment of various cancers.
Some patients suffering from arthritis, depression, seizures, insomnia and cancer may find benefits from use of this terpene.
Eucalyptol has a minty smell and is found in trace amounts in psychoactive cannabis. Not surprisingly, it is the main ingredient in eucalyptus essential oil. Eucalyptol is found in eucalyptus plants, bay leaves, sage, sweet basil, and cardamom.
Eucalyptol is used to relieve pain, improve concentration, enhance meditation, and create a feeling of inner balance. It is still in the early stages of research, but this terpene is showing promise as a treatment for Alzheimer’s.
Nerolidol has a unique woody smell reminiscent of fresh bark. Nerolidol is found in neroli, ginger, jasmine, lavender, and tea tree oil.
Nerolidol contains anti-fungal, anti-cancer, and anti-malarial properties. It may also prevent certain kinds of parasites.
Pure hemp seed oil — otherwise known as hemp oil — is sometimes marketed the same way as CBD oil. However, it does not contain cannabinoids like CBD oil does. Again, CBD oil is made from hemp flowers, leaves, and stems, and hemp oils are made entirely from the seeds of the plant.
When “CBD oil” is found on Amazon, it is either not truly CBD oil, or it is on there against Amazon’s rules and will be removed from their site once Amazon’s staff figures that out. When “hemp oil” is on Amazon’s site, it is filled with Omega’s and other great nutrients, but it is not CBD oil.
Whole Plant Hemp (“Full Spectrum”) Versus Canabinoid Isolates
If you see a CBD oil labeled as “whole plant” or “full spectrum,” this means that there are more cannabinoids in there than just CBD, and also that there are usually flavonoids and terpenes present. This is typically preferable (over isolates) because of what is called the “entourage effect.”
The Entourage Effect
The entourage effect is the result of the synergistic interaction of cannabinoids, flavonoids, terpenoids, and fatty acids naturally occurring in cannabis. The entourage effect refers to the benefits that occur because these compounds work together as opposed to one of these compounds working in isolation. The entourage effect is basically the additional benefits you get from ingesting many components of a cannabis plant combined instead of only one component.
Cannabis plants contain approximately 500 compounds, to include more than 113 phytocannabinoids — in addition to terpenoids, flavonoids, and fatty acids.
Flavonoids are phytonutrients which are responsible for the vivid colors (other than green) that we see in plants. For example, the color of shiny red apples and beautiful blueberries is the result of their unique flavonoid profiles. They are known to have antiviral, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects.
We learned above about terpenes. Terpenes also provide medicinal effects, as discussed.
Truly the only reason you would want to take an isolate (only one cannabinoid) rather than a full-spectrum or whole plant product is to avoid consuming any amounts of THC. Even though full-spectrum oils contain only trace amounts (under 0.3%) of THC, this can theoretically be enough to cause a positive result on a drug test, if the test is sensitive enough.
Is CBD legal?
This is an incredibly complicated question to answer. Many eCommerce websites and brick and mortar stores will claim that CBD is legal in all 50 states, but this isn’t exactly true. It is still a bit of a gray area, and you must look at the question from several different angles.
Federally, industrial hemp was recently (2018) made legal to grow and sell when the 2018 Farm Bill was passed.
There was an earlier farm bill (2014) that also made it legal for certain farmers to grow industrial hemp, primarily if it was for research purposes. Obviously, this is fairly constraining. The new Farm Bill is far more beneficial to the hemp — and CBD — market.
This is a bit trickier as each state has its own regulations around cannabis products. Some states have legalized marijuana for both recreational and medical purposes. These states have the most lenient and clear laws around CBD.
Other states have made marijuana and CBD legal with a medical prescription from a licensed doctor. In these states, CBD is technically not legal if you do not have a prescription.
Yet other states have not legalized cannabis at all. In these states you cannot even purchase it with a prescription.
Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA)
The U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration has designated (almost all) CBD — and all cannabis — as Schedule 1 drugs. According to the DEA’s definition, “Schedule I drugs, substances, or chemicals are defined as drugs with no currently accepted medical use and a high potential for abuse. Some examples of Schedule I drugs are: heroin, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), marijuana (cannabis), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy), methaqualone, and peyote.” It seems very odd to put CBD in the same classification as heroin, but strangely it is.
In September of 2018, the DEA took some Cannabidiol off this list. The newly rescheduled drugs include “finished dosage formulations” of CBD with THC below 0.1%. These will now be considered Schedule 5 drugs, as long as the medications have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). You will see the irony in this when you read the next section.
While this is the first time the agency has removed any type of cannabis from Schedule 1, it is not a full win for Cannabidiol. Currently, only Epidiolex (mentioned in an earlier section as a treatment for some forms of epilepsy) satisfies the requirements. The hope is that the change could eventually affect other CBD formulations.
It is important to note that even Schedule 5 drugs are illegal without a prescription. The DEA says Schedule 5 drugs have a low potential for abuse. They are generally medicines such as pain relievers and antidiarrheal medications.
Despite the current designation of most CBD formulations as Schedule 1 drugs, a spokesperson for the DEA recently said that because we are in an “opioid crisis,” the DEA is not looking to enforce the laws around Cannabidiol. CBD is extremely low on their priority list.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
The FDA has not approved CBD for use in any medicine, supplement or food product, with the exception of Epidiolex as mentioned above. This is not a gray area at all. CBD is not approved by the FDA.
Can I take CBD on a plane?
We would not advise taking CBD on a plane. Could you get away with it? Most likely there are ways to travel via plane with CBD and not have any issues. However, due to the varied and convoluted laws regarding CBD, you would be taking a risk by traveling with it.
24 CBD Oil Benefits for Humans, Dogs, Cats, Horses, and Other Mammals
It is important to understand that the benefits that you experience are the same benefits that your pets experience when using Cannabidiol. Since all mammals have an endocannabinoid system, all mammals will experience the same great benefits.
One of the primary benefits of CBD is its anti-inflammatory effect. It prevents inflammation by inhibiting the reabsorption of the neurotransmitter, adenosine. By doing so, it helps receptors regulate inflammation.
CBD also activates the TRV-1 receptor. This receptor has been found to significantly decrease inflammation and pain. By reducing inflammation, CBD can alleviate common diseases such as arthritis, skin allergies, inflammatory bowel disease, and cardiovascular disease.
Many studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of CBD to relieve pain. Since inflammation is a leading cause of pain, CBD promotes healing by first reducing inflammation, as mentioned above.
CBD interacts with opioid receptors, which regulate pain. It also interacts with dopamine receptors, which regulate pleasure.
CBD has even been designated a new class of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug.
One of the most common CBD oil uses in mammals — including dogs and cats — is to reduce anxiety. Studies have shown that CBD boosts serotonin. The increased serotonin signaling helps to reduce anxiety and improve mood.
CBD does not interact directly with the same receptors as THC, so it doesn’t produce a psychoactive effect (which can increase anxiety).
While CBD is a great remedy if you have anxiety, it is also useful for many pets. Pets often suffer from different types of behavioral anxiety such as separation anxiety and aggression. Some of the daily situations that can cause anxiety are the feeling of abandonment by being left alone, the presence of intruders, ringing doorbells, thunderstorms and sudden loud noises.
If your pet reacts negatively to fireworks, CBD can really help alleviate their fearfulness.
Prevention of Seizures and Epilepsy
Seizures are caused by the misfiring of neurons in the brain. If seizures happen frequently, brain damage can occur. By interacting with neurons in the brain, CBD has been shown to help regulate anticonvulsant neurotransmitters.
Just like us, pets can suffer from seizures and epilepsy from an electrolyte deficiency, brain cancer, anemia, head injuries, kidney failure, genetic problems, stroke and more.
Cancer Cell Destruction
Although there is no hard evidence that cannabinoids can cure cancer, research studies show that cannabinoids do have the capability of destroying cancer cells. In addition, CBD can help lesson symptoms of cancer — and cancer treatments — such as inflammation, pain, nausea and loss of appetite.
Arthritis is a common chronic disease that occurs in mammals including humans, dogs, cats, horses and others. It is a degenerative disease and involves the deterioration of joints. Arthritis causes swelling and pain in the joints. Chronic arthritis can cause you or your pet to become immobile or stiff, aggressive, fatigued or to have difficulty getting up or walking.
There are many types of treatments for arthritis including conventional drugs like the NSAIDs and opioids for pain relief. However, prolonged use of these addictive and harsh prescription drugs can cause harmful side effects. Side effects include liver or kidney damage, vomiting, diarrhea, ulcers, weakness and lack of appetite.
If you are concerned about side effects of traditional medicines, consider CBD as an option for arthritis for you and your pets. Since Cannabidiol is a natural anti-inflammatory and pain reliever, it can be an effective way to alleviate symptoms of arthritis — making it one of the best natural hip and joint supplements available.
Inflammatory Bowl Disease
Studies have shown that CBD can help prevent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). IBD is a serious condition in which the stomach lining becomes inflamed. This inflammation inhibits the normal absorption and passage of food.
Nausea is a symptom that is quite common in humans and our furry friends. It can occur for a number of reasons, such as a side effect of prescription medication. Studies have shown that CBD helps to reduce vomiting and alleviates symptoms of nausea.
Since CBD can reduce nausea, it can also help improve your — or your pet’s — appetite. Loss of appetite can be a symptom of bad health, becoming elderly, or a side effect of medications.
Skin Allergy Relief
We all experience allergies from food, pests, medication or the environment on occasion. These allergies can cause skin inflammation, itching, and even respiratory problems. Studies have shown that the endocannabinoid system plays a key role in reducing inflammation. By reducing inflammation, CBD can help lessen the effects of severe allergies and promote healing.
Hair Growth Promotion
Humans and their pets can lose their hair due to a variety of factors including skin allergies, dermatitis, eczema, hot spots, dry skin, stress, age, and more.
CBD can alleviate symptoms of skin allergies due to its powerful anti-inflammatory properties. This can help reduce hair loss and allow the skin to heal which encourages new hair growth. CBD also decreases stress which can help stall hair loss.
Neurodegenerative Disease Symptom Reducer
Studies show that CBD can help reduce cell death in the brain. This is definitely relevant for senior humans or pets who are more susceptible to developing neurological diseases as a result of their age.
Additionally, there have been studies that have shown that CBD can reduce symptoms associated with Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s and other neurodegenerative diseases.
Blood Circulation Enhancer
CBD regulates blood circulation in several ways. It interacts with several receptors in the brain, such as adenosine and vanilloid receptors. These receptors are key agents involved in the regulation of blood flow and cardiovascular functions. These receptors help to unclog blood vessels, regulate blood pressure and maintain heart health.
Cardiovascular Health Improver
Cardiovascular conditions can be quite common. Some types of heart diseases include:
Studies have shown that CBD can reduce cardiovascular damage. Since it is an anti-inflammatory agent, it can reduce inflammation in the vascular system. It also can prevent further damage from occurring. CBD can additionally reduce the effects of stress on the cardiovascular system.
Glaucoma is caused by the buildup of pressure in the eye. Symptoms include redness, swelling, headache, and pain. If the illness advances, it can lead to blindness. It is a relatively common disorder that can develop in dogs and cats from genetic inheritance, injuries and infections.
Research has shown that CBD can effectively reduce intraocular pressure (IOC) caused by glaucoma.
Depression Relief and Mood Enhancer
Depression is a serious issue in humans and in our pets. We talked about depression in humans in an earlier section. In pets, some symptoms include prolonged fatigue and lack of appetite. Since depression is caused by a variety of mental and physical factors, and since your pet can’t tell you what is wrong, it may be difficult to identify definitively what is making your pet feel down.
Research indicates that depression is linked to irregular levels of serotonin and dopamine. Serotonin and dopamine are neurotransmitters that regulate sleep, mood and reward-seeking behavior. CBD can help the body control levels of these key neurotransmitters through its interactions in the endocannabinoid system.
Diabetic Symptom Relief
Cannabidiol can help with diabetes in two ways. Initially, it can help stimulate CB1 and CB2 receptors located on the pancreas. The pancreas is the organ that is responsible for producing insulin.
Secondly, CBD can help alleviate the symptoms associated with diabetes. Some symptoms it can help with include chronic inflammation and insufficient blood circulation. The lack of blood flow to the extremities can result in areas of dead tissue.
GPR55 is a receptor that regulates bone density. It is responsible for bone reabsorption in the body. When this receptor is overstimulated, it can cause osteoporosis. Cannabidiol acts as a blocker for GPR55 and deactivates it, thus preventing overstimulation of this receptor.
Immune System Enhancer
The endocannabinoid system plays a powerful role in helping the body maintain a balanced immune system.
If the immune system becomes unbalanced, serious diseases can develop. Some of these diseases include autoimmune diseases which can occur from immune system hyperactivity. On the other hand, an under-active immune system can cause increased vulnerability to viral and bacterial infections.
CBD helps the endocannabinoid system to regulate the body’s immune system and restore its balance.
Sleep and Rest Inducer
Serotonin is one of the main neurotransmitters that regulate sleep. It is one of the key neurotransmitters that Cannabidiol helps to regulate within the brain. When levels of serotonin are out of whack, sleep disorders can result.
Insomnia in dogs and cats can become serious, just as it can be in humans. If a pet can’t sleep for a period of time, they will likely exhibit symptoms of extreme fatigue, irritability and anxiety. Since CBD can relax your pet, it can help to reduce their anxiety. This can help them get a better night’s sleep.
Rich Source of Antioxidants
CBD is a well-known — and powerful — antioxidant. In fact, the US Government issued a patent in 1999 indicating the rich antioxidant properties of cannabinoids.
CBD is even more rich in antioxidants than vitamins C and E. Antioxidants are vital for helping the body reduce damage caused by free radicals. These free radicals can cause many serious diseases — some of which include cancer, heart disease, stroke and Alzheimer’s.
In most cases, the best CBD oils are made with whole-plant extraction, which uses leaves, seeds and stalks.
All of these compounds work together on a united front to enhance the effects of CBD. This creates the “entourage effect” described earlier in this manual. This synergistic effect is what gives CBD oils their therapeutic properties.
In 2008, scientists tested five different compounds found in the cannabis plant. One of the compounds was CBD, but others were tested as well. The scientists found that each cannabinoid demonstrated “potent activity” against multiple antibiotic-resistant strains of a bacteria (MRSA).
It’s promising to know that with more research, CBD can potentially be used to fight against bacteria that are antibiotic-resistant.
If your pet is on antibiotics, you may want to use CBD to help ease the side effects caused by the medication such as nausea, fatigue and allergic reactions.
Improve Holistic Wellness
This wonderful natural component of the hemp plant can produce powerfully therapeutic effects. Just as it is great for you, CBD for dogs and other pets is a powerful way to enhance your pet’s overall holistic wellness and help them tackle disease in a natural way.
CBD and Pets
All mammals have an endocananbinoid system. Because of this, there are a variety of ways that CBD can potentially help your pet. As mentioned above, CBD can relieve common problematic conditions in pets such as anxiety and pain, and it can also help to alleviate chronic diseases like arthritis and seizures.
It is recommended by Dr. Silva to start patients on the low end of the dose, and to give it for a week to look for beneficial effects. He says that often a dose that low will work well. If it does work well, it is recommended to stay at that dose. If you don’t see the benefits you desire, increase the dosage in small increments and gradually until you see the desired effects.
Dog CBD supplements come in a couple forms:
CBD Oils and Extracts: CBD oils are usually formulated with a carrier oil. Common carrier oils include: coconut oil, MCT coconut oil, olive oil, and of course, hemp seed oil,. Some specialty formulas may contain ingredients likekrill oil or wild Alaskan salmon oil. Both of those carrier oils are ideal for pets with joint or inflammatory issues.
CBD Pet Treats: Treats are a tasty way to give your pet the perks of CBD. Good quality CBD treats are grain-free, just like good quality pet food. Many CBD pet treats are also made with organic ingredients. They may include superfoods that help with common ailments. For example, turmeric helps with inflammation and is a common ingredient found in CBD dog treats.
EXTREMELY IMPORTANT NOTE: THC can be extremely harmful to pets. Never give a pet a product with more than trace amounts (0.3%) of THC.
Just as in humans and in dogs, cats have an endocannabinoid system that regulates important physiological functions such as immunity, sleep, pain, and mood. As in all mammals, cannabinoid receptors are found all throughout the body, including the brain, nervous system, and immune system.
There are few in vivo studies of CBD on cats; however, there is a wealth of anecdotal and preliminary reports that support its therapeutic action.
Pet owners report that following issues can be addressed with CBD supplements:
Loss of appetite
Lack of energy
There are also more serious health conditions where cat owners have reported seeing good results when using CBD oils. These ailments include common feline diseases such as arthritis, pancreatitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and asthma. These are all conditions where inflammation is often the root cause.
There is also evidence that CBD is effective for reducing seizures in cats.
Cats are obviously much smaller than humans, which means they will normally require significantly lower doses of CBD.
According to some veterinarians, 0.05 to 0.25 milligrams of CBD per pound of your cat is recommended. Doses may vary depending on what condition your cat is suffering from. Remember, more isn’t always better. It is wise to start with low doses and evaluate how your cat responds.
Some vets make the following recommendations when deciding on a dosage for your cat:
It is important to realize that CBD doesn’t typically work instantaneously. It may take several weeks for you to notice its effects on your pet. Therefore, when you administer CBD, be patient and consistent. Always carefully monitor your cat so you can find the optimal therapeutic dosage.
As a general rule, wait a week or two before increasing the dosage. Repeat this process as needed until you see the benefits you seek.
Horses and Other Pets
CBD oil is able to treat a wide number of health issues in horses. While most of the research on Cannabidiol has been done on people, cats, and dogs, there are an increasing number of studies looking into the benefits it can have for horses and other animals.
Just like it can help treat pain, inflammation, stress, mood, digestion, and more in humans, dogs, and cats, so can it help these problems in horses. It is important to realize that it can only treat the symptoms of these conditions, not cure them. You should not seek a cure for serious health issues by using CBD.
Due to horses’ large size, they can be prone to chronic pain issues such as arthritis. Arthritis can eventually lead to lameness. This is especially true for competitive horses since their bodies undergo high levels of stress.
Prescription painkillers for chronic joint pain and arthritis often have significantly negative side effects. These side effects may leave your horse feeling sedated and sluggish. Cannabidiol, on the other hand, is able to treat these conditions without that side effect.
CBD for horses can reduce the swelling around your animal’s joints. This relieves some of the pain and pressure off their joints. CBD also targets pain receptors and blocks them from activating. When these receptors are blocked and not activated, the neurons no longer send pain signals throughout your horse’s body. These two effects combined allow your horse to run and play again.
Also giving your horse CBD post-surgery can help reduce swelling. Just make sure that you discuss it with your vet beforehand.
Horses are some of the most emotional and intelligent animals that we keep as pets. It’s essential to make sure their emotional health is in good shape. Perhaps the most well-known health benefit of CBD is its ability to help users with depression and chronic anxiety.
CBD can also be used for pre-competition jitters. Competing in a closed space can give your horse “arena anxiety.” This could have a negative effect on their performance — and their health. Luckily, CBD can help with both of these issues in a safe and natural way.
Because horses generally live off of a grain-only diet, they are highly susceptible gastrointestinal issues such as bloating, ulcers, nausea, indigestion, and decreased appetite. CBD counteracts this irritation. It can prevent your horse from developing these issues, and it can repair the damage if the symptoms have already developed.
You should never give your horse CBD oil with more than trace amounts of THC in it. THC is toxic to most animals, as we’ve discussed. Never give your horse marijuana directly.
Potential Side Effects … Can my pet overdose?
Since CBD is a non-toxic supplement, it is highly unlikely your pet could consume any amount that would create an overdose. However, as with any supplement, there are still potential side effects that CBD can produce in pets, just as it can in humans.
According to a survey conducted by the Scientific American, pet owners have reported seeing the following side effects in their pets:
Many of these symptoms are uncommon. As shown in the study, more than 80% reported no symptoms or notable differences.
Side effects can be more likely to occur if you give your pet too high of a dosage. Before starting your pet on any CBD supplements, make sure to follow the correct dosage guidelines provided by the manufacturer. Just as you would do with yourself, start with small doses and increase slowly.
CBD and Sports
We are all familiar with the infamous “runner’s high.” A runner’s high is the magical feeling of bliss and contentment that washes over you after — or during — an intense bout of exercise.
It was once thought that the source of this euphoria was due to endorphins, but this is not entirely true. It is also due to anandamide – a fatty acid neurotransmitter that is almost identical to THC. Anandamide is elevated after a workout.
Anandamide is a “bliss chemical” produced naturally in our bodies. It is responsible for feelings of euphoria, well-being, pain-relief, ease, and relaxation. CBD directly increases the amount of anandamide that is accessible to our bodies.
Additional benefits of CBD for athletes include:
Pain and Inflammation
It can also help with concussions, because CBD disrupts the flow of chemicals during a concussion that can lead to brain cell death. In other words, it acts as a neuroprotectant.
This is just a quick look into how CBD oil helps high-performance athletes as well as anyone interested in enhancing the results they experience from exercise. Finally, perhaps one of the greatest benefits for exercise enthusiasts is CBD oil’s ability to reduce post-exercise pain and discomfort.
Will I test positive on a drug test?
Some CBD products still contain small traces of THC. You should be able to find that information on the packaging or within the lab report (COA).
The federal legal limit is 0.3% for CBD products, but even the smallest traces can cause you to fail a drug test.
In order for CBD, or cannabinoid-rich hemp oil products to test positive on a drug test, an individual would have to be using unusually large amounts — above 1000 milligrams — of the product per day.
An option, though, is to use a CBD isolate. Isolate products don’t have any THC. If you are concerned about failing a blood test, it might be wise to use a CBD isolate. You won’t get the “entourage effect,” but you will still be able to get substantial benefits, and you won’t be assuming the risk of testing positive for THC.
Medical review officers say THC can stay in your system from any where between five and 30 days in a urine test.
Hopefully you have learned a lot about cannabis, cannabinoids, Cannabidiol, and the endocannabinoid system. If there is anything we haven’t covered that you’d like to know, please reach out to us. We pride ourselves on providing the most thorough information possible.